Annotated checklist of Collembola of Nepal

  • Prem Bahadur Budha Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Pratistha Shrestha Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Keywords: Endemic species; Hexapods; Himalanura; Nepalanura; Springtails


This is the first annotated checklist of Collembola species of Nepal. It includes 167 collembolan species belonging to 78 genera and 17 families including 45 endemic species. Majority of the Nepalese collembolan species were reported from major trekking routes viz. Mount Everest, Annapurna Conservation Area and Langtang area with very few other locations. The highest record of collembola in Nepal is about 5800 m asl. Southern Terai and Siwalik range remain unexplored. 


Abbas, M. J. and Parwez, H. 2019. Diversity and relative abundance of Collembola in a wheat (Triticum aestivum) field at Aligarh. bioRxiv.

Agolin, M., Houssin, C. and Deharveng, L. 2009. Superodontella gladiator, a new species of the family Odontellidae (Collembola: Poduromorpha) from Nepal with extremely elongated mouthparts. Zootaxa 2208:51–57.

André, H. 1983. Notes on the ecology of corticolous epiphyte dwellers. 2. Collembola. Pedobiologia.

Bedos, A. and Deharveng, L. 1991. Cephalachorutes gen. n., a new genus of tropical Neanuridae (Collembola). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 134(1):145–153.

Behan-Pelletier, V. M. 2003. Acari and Collembola biodiversity in Canadian agricultural soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 83:279–288.

Bellinger, P. F., Christiansen, K. A. and Janssens, F. 1996–2021. Checklist of the Collembola of the World. Retrieved from

Bellinger, P. F. and Ellis, W. N. 1997. Generic names of Collembola: Supplement 1984–1996. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 140:1–11.

Cassagnau, P. and Deharveng, L. 1981. Sur le genre Vitronura (Collemboles: Neanuridae): aspect systématique et approache cytogénétique. Bulletin du Museum national d’histoire naturelle 3(1):151–173.

Cassagnau, P. 1982. Sur les Neanurinae primitifs suceurs et les lignees qui en derivent (Collemboles). Travaux du Laboratoired’ Ecobiologie des Arthropodes Edaphiques, Toulouse 3(3):1–11.

Cassagnau, P. 1984. Introduction al’etude des Phyiomeriens (Collemboles, Neanurinae): diagnoses preliminaires des especes. Travaux du Laboratoired’ Ecobiologie des Arthropodes Edaphiques, Toulouse 4(3):1–30.

Cassagnau, P. 1993. Les Collemboles Neanurinae de l’Himalaya; III genre Nepalimeria. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100(1):91–112.

Choudhuri, D. K. 1958. Some new species of Onychiurus Gervais (Collembola: Onychiuridae) from Nepal and Uganda. Proceedings of Royal Entomological Society of London, Series B 27:147–154.

Christiansen, K. and Bellinger, P. 1992. Insects of Hawaii, Collembola. Honolulu, University of Hawaii press. p 445.

Christiansen, K. and Bellinger, P. 1996. Cave Pseudosinella and Oncopodura new to science. Journal of Caves and Karst Studies 58(1):38–53.

Cipola, N. G., Oliveira, F. G. L., Moraisi, J. W. and Bellini, B. C. 2016. The Heteromurini Absolon & Ksenemann (Collembola, Entomobryidae): a review of the genera status and diagnoses, keys for species of Alloscopus Borner and Heteromurtrella Mari Mutt and description of a new species. Zootaxa 4084(2):151–186.

D’Haese, C. and Weiner, W. M. 1998. A review of Willemia buddenbrocki group (Collembola, Poduromorpha, Hypogastruridae) with cladistics analysis. Journal of Natural History 32(7):969–986.

Deharveng, L. 1996. Soil Collembola diversity, endemism, and reforestation: A case study in the Pyrenees (France). Conservation Biology 10(1):74–84.

Deharveng, L., D’Haese, C. A. and Bedos, A. 2008. Global diversity of Springtails (Collembola: Hexapoda) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:329–338.

Deharveng, L., Palacios-Vargas, J. G. and Bedos, A. 2017. A list of Yuukianura Yosii, 1955 species of the world (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae: Lobellini), with description of a new species of unusual ecology from Santo Island (Vanuatu). Zoosystema 39(1):55–67.

Dunger, W. and Voigtlander, K. 2009. Soil fauna (Lumbricidae, Collembola, Diplopoda and Chilopoda) as indicators of soil eco-subsystem development in post-mining sites of eastern Germany - a review. Soil Organisms 81(1):1–51.

Ellis, W. N. and Bellinger, P. F. 1973. An annotated list of the generic names of Collembola (Insecta) and their type species. Monografieen van de Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging 7:1–74.

Ellis, W. N. and Bellinger, P. F. 1984. Generic names of Collembola: Supplement 1973–1983. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 127:1–15.

Fjellberg, A. 1977. On the identity of Isotoma ekmani nom. nov. pro I. pallida Agrell, 1939 (nec Nicolet, 1842, Moniez, 1894) (Collembola: Isotomidae). Scandinavian Entomology 8:9–11.

Folsom, J. W. 1902. Collembola of the grave. Psyche 9(315):363–367.

Frampton, G. K. 1994. Sampling to detect effects of pesticides on epigeal Collembola (Springtails). Aspects of Applied Biology 37:121–130.

Geissen, V. and Kampichler, C. 2004. Limits to the bioindication potential of Collembola in environmental impact analysis: a case study of forest soil-liming and fertilization. Biology and Fertility of Soils 39:383–390.

Greenslade, P. 1999. Revision of Folsomina Denis (Collembola: Isotomidae) with a description of a new species from Southeast Asia and the Pacific region and comments on ecology. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 47(1):1–15.

Greenslade, P. 2007. The potential of Collembola to act as indicators of landscape stress in Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47:424–434.

Greenslade, P., Bell, L. and Florentine, S. 2011. Auditing revegetated catchments in southern Australia: decomposition rates and collembolan species assemblages. Soil Organisms 83(3):433–450.

Gruss, I., Twardowski, J. P., Krolczyk, A. L. J. and Medynska-Juraszek, A. 2019. The effect of biochar used as soil amendment on morphological diversity of Collembola. Sustainability 11:5216.

Imms, A. D. 1912. On some Collembola from India, Burma and Ceylon; with a catalogue of the oriental species of the order. Proceedings of the General Meetings of Scientific Business of the Zoological Society of London, London, Messrs Longmans, Green, and Co.

Janetschek, F. 1990. Berichte des naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischenvereins in Innsbruck. Innsbruck, Universitatsverlag Wagner. p 119.

Jordana, R. and Baquero, E. 2005. A proposal of characters for taxonomic identification of Entomobrya species (Collembola: Entomobryomorpha), with description of a new species. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundesmuseums Gorlitz 76(2):117–134.

Katz, A. D., Giordano, R. and Soto-Adames, F. 2015. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen North American Entomobrya (Collembola, Entomobryidae), including four new species. Zookeys 525:1–75.

Lawrence, P. N. 1969. Isotomidae from the Solomon Islands (Collembola). Pacific Insects 11(3–4):545–559.

Mandal, A. K. and Hazra, G. P. 2009. The diversity of Collembola (Hexapoda) from East and North-East India with some notes on their ecology. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional paper 298:1–206.

Mandal, G.P., Suman, K.K. and Bhattacharya K.K. 2010. On some collection of collembolan present in the apterygota section. Records of Zoological Survey of India 112(3):95–100.

Mandal, G.P. 2018. Collembola of India- An updated checklist. Halteres 9: 116–130. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1280640

Mari Mutt, J. A. 1979. A revision of genus Dicranocentrus Schött (Insecta: Collembola: Entomobryidae). M.Sc., University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.

Mari Mutt, J. A. 1981. Two new Dicranocentrus from Nepal and a key to the Indian and Nepalese species (Collembola: Entomobryidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 57(4):493–599.

Mari Mutt, J. A. 1985. Eight species of Dicranocentrus and redescriptions for D. thaicus and D. pilosus (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Orchesellinae). Journal of Agriculture of University of Puerto Rico 69(3):297–322.

Mari Mutt, J. A. and Bhattacharjee, R. K. 1980. Four new species of Dicranocentrus from northeast India and Nepal (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Orchesellinae). Pacific Insects 22(1–2):162–170.

Martín, J., García-Barros, E., Gurrea, P., Luciañez, M. J., Munguira, M. L., Sanz, M. J., Simón, J. C. 2000. High endemism areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Belgian Journal of Entomology 2:47–57.

Mitra, S. K. and Dallai, R. 1980. Studies of the genus Campylothorax Schӧtt, 1893 (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Paronellinae) with the description of a new species from Zaire. Italian Journal of Zoology 13(1):273–321.

Palacios-Vargas, J. G. and Gomez-Anaya, J. 1995. Two New Mexican Species of Paleonura (Collembola: Neanuridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 68(1):95–102.

Palacios-Vergas, J. G. and Deharveng, L. 2010. A new species of Kenyura (Collembola: Neanuridae: Pseudachorutinae) from Nicaragua. Brenesia 73-74:75–88.

Petrillo, H. A. and Witter, J. A. 2005. Invertebrate biodiversity in northern hardwood ecosystems under varying disturbance regimes. Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium, Saranak Lake, NY, USA, Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.

Potapov, M. and Cassagnau, P. 2000. Two new species of Folsomia (Collembola, Isotomidae) from Nepal. Contributions from Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University 29(2):75–81.

Potapov, M., Janion, C. and Deharveng, L. 2011. Two new species of Parisotoma (Collembola: Isotomidae) from the Western Cape, South Africa. Zootaxa 2771:17–24.

Rodgers, D. J. and Kitching, R. L. 1998. Vertical stratification of rainforest Collembolan (Collembola: Insecta) assemblages: Description of ecological patterns and hypotheses concerning their generation. Ecography 21(4):392–400.

Rodgers, D. J. and Kitching, R. L. 2011. Rainforest Collembola (Hexapoda: Collembola) and the insularity of epiphyte microhabitats. Insect Conservation and Diversity 4(2):99–106.

Rusek, J. 1998. Biodiversity of Collembola and their functional role in the ecosystem. Biodiversity & Conservation 7(9):1207–1219.

Santos, E. M. R., Franklin, E. and Luizao, F. J. 2008. Litter manipulation and associated invertebrate fauna in secondary forest, central Amazonia, Brazil. Acta Oecologica 34:274–284.

Schulz, H.J. 2018. Bemerkenswerte Collembolenfunde aus Nepal (Insecta: Collembola).In Hartmann, M., M.V.L. Barclay & J. Weipert (eds):Biodiversität und Naturausstattung im Himalaya VI- Verein der Freunnde und Förderer des Naturekundemuseums Erfurt e. V., Erfurt: 179–182.

Shaw, P. 2013. The use of inert pads to study the Collembola of suspended soils. Soil Organisms 85(1):69–74.

Skarzynski, D. and Smolis, A. 2006. Description of Ceratophysella robustiseta sp. n. from greenhouses in England, with notes on synonymy of C. postanetennalis Yosii, 1966 and taxonomic status of C. morula Deharveng & Bourgeois, 1991 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 113(2):297–303.

Snyder, B. A. and Callaham, M. A. 2019. Soil fauna and their potential responses to warmer soils. In: (Eds) Ecosystem consequences of soil warming. Elsevier Netherlands. pp 279–296.

Soto-Adames, F. N., Barra, J., Christiansen, K. and Jordana, R. 2008. Supragenic classification of Collembola Entomobryomorpha. Annals of Entomological Society of America 101(3): 501–513.[501:scoce];2

South, A. 1961. The taxonomy of the British species of Entomobrya (Collembola). Transections of the Royal Entomological Society of London 119:387–416.

Tamura, H. and Zhao, L. 1997. Two Onychiurid species new to China (Collembola). Entomologia Sinica 4(1):47–52.

Thapa, V. K. 1997. An inventory of Nepal's insects. Kathmandu, Nepal, IUCN-The World Conservation Union. p 475.

Thapa, V. K. 2015. Insect diversity in Nepal. Format Printing Press, Kathmandu, Nepal. p 1094.

Thibaud, J. M. and Najt, J. 1988. Collemboles (Insecta) de l’Equateur IV. Paronellidae avec revision de quatre genres. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histore Naturelle 10(4):719–730.

Timmermans, M., Roelofs, D., Mariën, J. and Van Straalen, N. 2008. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8(1):1–10.

Vargovitsh, R. S. 2009. Species composition of the family Arrhopalitidae (Collembola: Symphypleona). Vestnik Zoologii 43(4):17–19.

Vázquez, M. M., Cutz-Pool, L. Q. and Palacios-Vargas, J. G. 1998. A new species of Hylaeanura (Collembola: Neanuridae: Pseudachorutinae). Southwestern Entomologist 23(4):367–371.

Wilson, J. M. 1982. A review of world Troglopedetini (Insecta, Collembola, Paronellidae) including an identification table and descriptions of new species. Transactions British Cave Research Association 9(3):210–226.

Yin, R., Eisenhauer, N., Schmidt, A., Gruss, I., Purahong, W., Siebert, J., et al. 2019. Climate change does not alter land-use effects on soil fauna communities. Applied Soil Ecology 140:1–10.

Yosii, R. 1959. Studies on the Collembolan faunaof Malay and Singapore with special reference to the genera Lobella, Lepidocyrtus and Callyntrura. Contributions from the Biological laboratory, Kyoto University 10:1–65.

Yosii, R. 1960. Studies on the Collembolan genus Hypogastrura. The American Midland Naturalist 64(2):257–281.

Yosii, R. 1962. Studies on the Collembolan genus Hypogastrura II. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University 13:1–25.

Yosii, R. 1966a. On some Collembola of Afghanistan, India and Ceylon, collected by the Kuphe-expedition, 1960. Results of the Kyoto University Scientific Expedition to the Karakoram and Hindukush 8:333–405.

Yosii, R. 1966b. Collembola of Himalaya. Journal of the College of Arts and Sciences, Chiba University 4:461–531.

Yosii, R. 1969. Dicyrtomina and Ptenothrix (Insecta: Collembola) of the Solomon Islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 48(2):217–236.

Yosii, R. 1970. On some Collembola of Japan and adjacent countries II. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University 23(1):1–32.

Yosii, R. 1971. Collembola of Khumbu Himal. Ergebn Forsch Unternehmens Nepal Himalaya 4(1):80–130.

Yosii, R. 1977. Critical check list of the Japanese species of Collembola. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University 25(2):141–170.

Yosii, R. 1990. Report on the cryophilous Collembola, collected by Dr. S. Kohshima. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University 27(4):523–534.

Zeppelini, D. 2011. Phylogeny of Arrhopalites s.l. (Collembola: Symphypleona: Arrhopalitidae): testing the monophyly of the recently erected genera Arrhopalites s.s. and Pygmarrhopalites. Invertebrate Systematics 25(2):91–105.

Zeppelini, D., Lopes, B. and Lima, E. 2019. A new species of Szeptyckitheca (Collembola, Symphypleona, Sphyrothecinae) from Brazil. Neotropical entomology 48(2):269–276.

Zhang, F. 2015. Some Willowsia from Nepal and Vietnam (Collembola: Entomobryidae) and description of one new species. Zootaxa 3905(4):489–499.

Zhang, F., Chen, J. X. and Deharveng, L. 2011. New insight into the systematics of the Willowsia complex (Collembola: Entomobryidae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, Taylor & Francis.

How to Cite
Budha, P. B., & Shrestha, P. (2021). Annotated checklist of Collembola of Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology , 5(1), 22-33.