Freshwater biodiversity in western Nepal: A review

  • Janak Raj Khatiwada Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada
  • Jagan Nath Adhikari Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu; Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal
  • Deepak Rijal USAID Program for Aquatic Natural Resource Improvement, Paani Program, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Lila Nath Sharma ForestAction Nepal, Lalitpur, Nepal
Keywords: Lakes, Biodiversity, Conservation, Threats, Western Nepal


Nepal is known for its rich freshwater resources that support diverse flora and fauna. These freshwater ecosystems provide countless goods and services to human kind but are in tremendous pressure mainly due to human activities. As a result, there has been sharp decline of hydrological, economic and ecological functions, good and services from wetlands. In this review, we explored the geographical distribution patterns, biodiversity, existing threats, goods and ecological services provided by the wetland/fresh water ecosystem in Nepal. The review also discusses the conservation history of wetlands and identifies the gaps and suggests priority hotspots for the formulation of future conservation strategies for these ecosystems.


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How to Cite
Khatiwada, J. R., Adhikari, J. N., Rijal, D., & Sharma, L. N. (2021). Freshwater biodiversity in western Nepal: A review . Nepalese Journal of Zoology , 5(1), 34-46.